Treatment of Confidential & Privileged Information


Applying to both lawyers and paralegals, privileged information disclosed from clients directly or indirectly must be kept confidential. The source of the information and its intended use are not pertinent for determining whether information is confidential.

Privileged information is simply all information concerning the business and affairs of the client acquired in the course of the professional relationship.”  All privileged information is also confidential information.

What is Discrimination?

Discrimination means uneven or different treatment or harassment that causes harm. The Ontario Human Rights Code is a provincial anti-discrimination law that applies to workplaces, housing, services, facilities, and to contracts and agreements.

If you want to take legal steps to address an incident of discrimination, the deadline is normally one year from the last discriminatory incident or conduct. People have the right to equal treatment and opportunities, without discrimination or harassment.

The areas covered by the Human Rights Code are:

  • Employment
  • Housing
  • Contracts
  • Services, goods and facilities
  • Unions or occupational/professional associations

The grounds of discrimination are:    

  • Ancestry
  • Citizenship
  • Creed (religion)
  • Ethnic origin
  • Place of origin
  • Race
  • Receipt of social assistance (housing only)
  • Age
  • Disability
  • Family status
  • Gender expression
  • Gender identity
  • Marital status
  • Record of offenses (employment only, must have been pardoned)
  • Sex or Gender (includes being pregnant, sexual harassment)
  • Sexual orientation